Stair is a structure used as a vertical traffic between in a building. It consist of successive steps (also known as ladders), platforms (rest platforms) and enclosures. In the multi-storey and high-rise buildings with elevators and escalators as the main vertical means of transport, stairs should also be provided. The level of the lowest and highest level of the stairs is the length of the staircase, and the total height of the steps is high.
The design of the stairs determines the ornamental, safety and comfort, which reflects the importance of staircase design.
First, the size of the opening, choose the size of the stairs, tread width and stairs modeling and so on
Second, the height of the floor, choose the stairs of the stepping distance of the urgency, affecting your comfort downstairs
Standard height and calculation formula of indoor staircase
Storey height (cm): 231-253 252-276 273-299 294-322 315-345
The number of steps: 10 + 1 11 + 1 12 + 1 13 + 1 14 + 1
Generally the width = 0.3 meters, height =0.15 meters high is the most appropriate. It is also convenient , and there is specification for width & height.
First, the number of stairs, location and staircase form should meet the requirements of easy to use and safety evacuation.
Second, the net width of the ladder should be in line with the provisions of fire safety regulations, for the daily main traffic staircase ladder net width should be based on the characteristics of the use of buildings, generally per person flow width of 0.55 + (0 ~ 0.15) m number of people , Should not be less than two shares flow.
Note: 0 ~ 0.15m for the flow of people in the swing of the human body, public buildings, many places should take the upper limit.
Third, the ladder change direction, the platform armrest at the minimum width should not be less than the net width of the ladder When the need to carry large objects should be appropriate to widen
Four,generally each stair of the tread should not exceed 18, also should not be less than 3.
Five, staircase platform upper and lower corridor of the net height should not be less than 2m. The height of the ladder shall not be less than 2.20m.
Note: The height of the ladder is the vertical height of the taper line leading edge (including the minimum and maximum stepped edge lines beyond 0.30m) to the vertical height of the lower edge of the straight top.
Six, the stairs should be at least one side of the handrail, ladder net width of three shares of the flow should be on both sides of the handrail, up to four flow should be added middle armrest.
Seven, indoor staircase handrail height from the front line of the amount of line should not be less than 0.90m. When the horizontal handrail on the side of the stairwell is more than 0.50m long, the height should not be less than 1m.
Eight, the front part of the tread with the anti-slip measures is appropriate.
Nine, there are children often used staircase ladder net width greater than 0.20m, must take security measures.
Ten,the height of staircase should be conform to the provisions
The maximum height of the living house is 0.18 and the minimum width is 0.25.
Kindergarten primary staircase maximum height = 0.15, the minimum width = 0.26.
Cinemas, theaters, stadiums, shopping malls, hospitals, nursing homes etc, the maximum height = 0.16, the minimum width = 0.28.
Other buildings staircase, the maximum height =0.17, the minimum width = 0.26.
Residential indoor stairs, dedicated service stairs, the maximum height = 0.20, the minimum width = 0.22.
The slope of the stairs
Stairway slope determination should take into account the walking comfort, climbing efficiency and spatial state factors.
Stages at all levels of the leading edge of the line is called the slope of the line. The angle between the slope and the horizontal is the slope of the stairs (the tangent of the angle is called the gradient of the stairs). Indoor staircase slope is generally 20 degrees -45 degrees is appropriate, the best slope of about 30 degrees. The special features of the stairs require varying degrees of slope. For example, ladder gradient of more than 60 degrees, dedicated staircase generally take 45 degrees -60 degrees, indoor and outdoor steps of the slope of 14 degrees -27 degrees, ramp slope is usually below 15 degrees. Generally speaking, in the larger flow of people, the safety standards are higher, or the area is more abundant places stairs slope should be gentle, only for a few people use or not often use the auxiliary staircase, the slope can be steep, but preferably not more than 38 degree.
Generally the size of the tread should be adapted to the foot size, also relative with the function in different types of buildings. The tread size includes height and width. The ratio of the tread height to the width is the gradient of the stairs. Tread under the same slope can have different values, giving a proper range to make people feel comfortable walking. Practice proved that if feel comfortable walking on the tread, generally are the height is more lower and width is more larger. Therefore, in the choice of aspect ratio, the same slope of the two sizes to a smaller height is appropriate, because the walking distance and width than the big step to save some effort. But should pay attention to the width can not be too small, not less than 240mm is appropriate, this can ensure that the focus of the foot point of gravity near the soles of the feet, and the heel of the heel of 90% of the pace. For adults, the minimum width of the staircase should be 240mm, comfortable width should be about 300mm. Tread height should not be greater than 170mm, more comfortable height is 150mm etc. The same staircase of the various stairs, the tread height and width size should be the same, the size should not be irregular changes to ensure that the gradient and stride constant.
the ladder width
the ladder width is generally determined by the flow of people to ensure the smooth flow of the principle. Single pass the width of the ladder should generally be 800-900mm; double pass the width of the ladder should generally be 1100mm - 1400mm; three pass the width of the ladder should generally be 1650-2100. If more flow of people, according to the flow of people per share increase 550 + (0-150) mm width. When the width of the ladder is greater than 1400mm , the wall should be generally set by handrails, and when the stairs more than 4-5 people flow, generally should be added middle armrest.
If the staircase hole is plenty of space, the staircase style can have a lot of options, but if the space is limited, it is necessary to consider the stairs style to save space.
The height between the steps of the stairs is called step height, and the height of the stairs needs to consider the comfort when walking. If there is a older or a child, you must carefully design the step height. If too high of step, people feel very tired when walking up. The steps height need to be consistent, avoid high difference, at most in the head and tail can have 2 levels of the appropriate adjustment.
Height adjustment on the head and tail for 2 levels is well founded, most people are more cautious at the start, and walk to the middle of the step height and step width are understood, according to the previous law to walk, and thus relax cautious. So the middle step should be consistent. And the head and tail 2 levels difference should also be maintained within a certain range, can not be too different.
Staircase handrail height national standards, according to the People 's Republic of China national standard residential design specifications GB 50096 - 1999 (2003 edition)
Editorial department: Ministry of Construction of the People 's Republic of China
Approval Department: Ministry of Construction of the People 's Republic of China
Date of implementation: June 1, 1999
Staircase tread width should not be less than 0.26m,tread height should not be greater than 0.175m. Handrail height should not be less than 0.90m. Staircase horizontal railings length greater than 0.50m, the armrest height should not be less than 1.05m. Stair rails between the vertical bar between the clearance should not be greater than 0.11m.
Stairs have a lots of size data, except the familiar tread of step, kick the size of the outside, the width of the ladder, the width of the rest, the platform off the net high are also clearly defined in the specification. Easy to be ignored is:
1. The height of the staircase handrail (from the front edge line) should not be less than 0.90m; outdoor staircase handrail height should not be less than 1.05m.
2. When the width of the stairwell is greater than 0.20m, the clearance of the vertical bar of the handrail should not be greater than 0.11m to prevent the child from falling.
3. The net width of the staircase platform shall not be less than 1.10m in addition to the width of the ladder.
4. The width of the ladder in the residential design norms are clearly defined in other buildings, must meet the requirements of fire evacuation. The width of the performance staircase in public buildings is usually too large, but pay attention to the relationship between the setting of the handrail and the width of the ladder. That is: the stairs should be at least one side of the handrail, ladder width of three shares of the flow, should be on both sides of the handrail, up to four flow, should be added middle armrest.
Stepping board, railings and support: this is the staircase to give us the most intuitive impression. Because they are the most important composition of the stairs, but also because they are really related to our "life".
Easily do not choose solid wood. Especially in the northern region, due to dry and wet caused by the expansion, will lead to stepping plate deformation and cracking. Once deformed, not only affect the beauty, but also affect the safety factor. General step board will use finger plate or glass, finger plate deformation is very small, easy to crack, and have a high load capacity. It should be noted that the finger plate made of stepping board, the surface is generally painted, with the same composite floor, the surface of the stepping board with a wear-resistant, anti-skid function. So, do not figure a moment of light and wax in the above, bright is bright, but also could not stand. Moreover, if you accidentally sprinkle water on the stepping board, be sure to dry in time, this is for security reasons. If the home is often in high temperature, high humidity conditions, then it is best not to choose finger plate to do step board, you can choose stone. In fact, many people prefer the kind of stone steps clear, "cold", "cool" feeling. For stepping stone, bearing a large weight. Select the stone step need to pay attention to anti-skid measures, generally there are two measures: paste anti-skid and dig grooving the stone. If use the metal material as step ? You should image the sound "bang, bang" when walk on the steps.
Must be enough height and width, if the child at home, then pay more attention to this point. Moreover, the combination of railings and stairs must be firm.
Different forms of stairs will have different ways to support. No matter what kind of support to take, we must pay attention to the support of the reliable, people walking on the stairs, the stairs will not happen to swing the phenomenon. Moreover, the support should not affect the stairs and the beauty of space.
Grasp details effect quality, which seems to become a law, the stairs details determine the quality of life